Researchers from IQOQI-Vienna published the paper “Experimental Two‐Way Communication with One Photon” where they present an experimental demonstration of a more efficient communication between two distant parties. This can lead to the realization of new quantum communication schemes, which are simultaneously anonymous, secure, and resource‐efficient.
Superposition of two or more states is one of the most fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and provides a basis for several advantages offered by quantum information processing. This work reports the experimental demonstration of two‐way communication between two distant parties that can exchange only a single particle once, an impossible task in classical physics. This is achieved through preparation of a single photon in a coherent superposition of the two parties’ locations. Furthermore, it is shown that this concept allows the parties to perform secure and anonymous quantum communication employing one particle per transmitted bit. These important features can lead to the realization of new quantum communication schemes, which are simultaneously anonymous, secure, and resource‐efficient. (Wiley)